Barnard Christiaan Neethling

Christiaan Neethling Barnard Dr C. Barnard Christiaan Neethling Barnard (November 8, 1922 – September 2, 2001) was a South African surgeon descendant of Baliol and Barnard Scottish families. He studied and received his doctorate at the University of Cape Town. He studied medicine at the University of “Cape”, where he graduated in 1953. He began his career as a general surgeon at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, where his older brother Marius was head of the transplant team. In 1955 he won a scholarship to join the U.S. University of Minnesota, where in 1958 he obtained a doctor specializing in cardiology. There was pupil of the prestigious Dr. Owen H. Wangesteen, who introduced him in cardiovascular science, while Dr. Shumway was familiar with the technique of heart transplants in animals, so that, upon his return from the United States, began to practice for several years with dogs.In 1962 he was appointed chief of thoracic surgery Groote Schuur hospital, where he had worked before his doctorate. I had experienced for several years with animal heart transplants following the first successful kidney transplant in 1954. Barnard performed the first kidney transplant in South Africa in 1959. Organ transplants were not a novelty at that time. The first kidney transplant was done by Dr. Varony in 1936. In 1953, Hardy performed the first lung transplant to a patient suffering from cancer, and in 1954 succeeded Murray successfully transplanted kidneys from identical twins in 1967 by a triple kidney transplant, pancreas and duodenum. In 1964, the said Hardy transplanted a chimpanzee heart of a man who died an hour after the lower volume of the organ of monkeypox. Initially working at Groote Schurr Hospital in Cape Town and then moved to U.S. where he specializes in cardiovascular surgery.He was a professor at the University of Cape Town since 1963 and known for making world on 3 December 1967 the first heart transplant in the history of surgery. The December 3, 1967, a news ticker that collected all stunned the world: a South African doctor had performed the first heart transplant a human being. The recipient was Louis Washkansky, dealer, big, optimistic man of fifty-six years, given up by an irreversible heart condition, which was accompanied by a severe diabetes. The donor, Denise Darvall, a young clerk of twenty-five with his mother run over by a car. The operation, conducted by a team of twenty surgeons led by Barnard, lasted six hours. Upon awakening, Washkansky stated that he felt much better with the new heart.Doctor and patient out catapulted to fame, though eighteen days later, the morning of Dec. 21, the patient died of pneumonia induced by immunosuppressive treatment to take. On January 2, 1968 performed the second transplant. This time the recipient was Dr. Philip Blaiberg, and the donor, the mulatto Clive Haupt. The black heart of a beat for 563 days in the body of a white. From that moment, amid a controversy that kept on bioethics of such interventions (is dead who is not breathing but his heart beats ), Patients were gaining life expectancy, thanks to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine. In 1970 he divorced his first wife, Louwtjie, who had given him two children: Andre, who committed suicide in 1984 because of the separation of their parents (according to his psychiatrist’s diagnosis and assessment of one’s parent), and Deirdre.That same year he married the heiress Barbara Zoellner, nineteen years old, daughter of Frederick German billionaire Zoellner, based in Johannesburg, known as the “king of steel”. In 1974 conducted for the first time ever double heart transplant, which was to add a healthier heart to another patient to help fulfill the functions they already had. But his experiments in surgery would end sooner or later, in failure. In 1975, when his fame began to wane, he visited Spain to present his book, Stress, and his new wife (who had borne him two sons, Frederick and Christian), with the aim of not losing a bit of popularity in the Merranean basin, where it was most flattered. Continued to perform heart transplants. In 1979, however, refused to participate in an operation to transplant a human head to find the idea impractical, and “probably immoral. This statement will save their honor.